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inlayRFID works in a wide array of frequencies but globally there are specific bands that were recognized as standards.

Here in FEC we believe every solution needs a suitable frequency, since each frequency type has its own pro and cons. We focus on the passive ISM Band standard 13.56MHz and UHF band, since these two are where the market is headed up.

In the commercial world of RFID, there are four standard types of major frequencies; the low frequency (circa 125kHz), the intermediate frequency (13.56MHz), the ultra high frequency (circa 900MHz) and the microwave frequency (2.45GHz).

The reason behind the many operating frequencies is simply because radio waves behave differently in different frequencies. For example, in low frequencies the radio can penetrate water bodies whereas no other frequency can do this. In ultra high frequencies the tags can be read at a further distance (typically 6-7 meters) as compared to low frequency applications.


Nations all around the world rely on radio waves primarily as the backbone of the communication technology. Radio communication has not only become common in today’s society, it is also a powerfully influential business. Since our air is filled with various signals for various services, from handphones to music radio stations, governments impose rules to use some certain radio bands.

For RFID, the world has recognized three regulatory areas, Europe and Africa (Region 1), North and South America (Region 2) and Far East and Australasia (Region 3). Each country manages their frequency allocations within the guidelines set out by the three regions.

Unfortunately, there has been little or no consistency over time with the allocation of frequency, and so there are very few frequencies that are available on a global basis for the technology. As any technology matures with the market, this situation will likely change in time, as countries are required to try to achieve more uniformity by the year 2010.

The regulations also include power levels, tolerance and interference that must be kept at a safe level. While governments want to promote RFID, other existing radio-based services must not be interrupted. For RFID usage guidelines in Malaysia, you can refer to MCMC for additional details.


Frequency Classifications



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