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The new hype in the market, UHF RFID is the type that operates between 860MHz to 960MHz band width and the regulation varies from region to region. Malaysia has specified 919-923MHz, and in contrast the US has specified 915MHz and Europe 868MHz for RFID applications.

By operating in these ultra high frequencies, tags are more sensitive and can be read at longer distance. However materials like water and metal may still pose a read problem when it is adjacent to the tag.

Recently the cost of UHF tags has become increasingly affordable even for item-level tagging. The market saw a huge adoption of UHF technology due to its robustness, sensitivity, cost and reliability.

Tagging position

RFID tagging positions can influence the performance of air interface UHF RFID passive tags and related to the position where RFID tags are embedded, attached, injected or digested.
In many cases, optimum power from RFID reader is not required to operate passive tags. However, in cases where the Effective Radiated Power (ERP) level and distance between reader and tags are fixed, such as in manufacturing setting, it is important to know the location in a tagged object where a passive tag can operate optimally.

EPC Gen2


EPC Gen2 is short for EPCglobal UHF Class 1 Generation 2.
EPCglobal (a joint venture between GS1 and GS1 US) is working on international standards for the use of mostly passive RFID and the EPC in the identification of many items in the supply chain for companies worldwide.

One of the missions of EPCglobal was to simplify the Babel of protocols prevalent in the RFID world in the 1990s. Two tag air interfaces (the protocol for exchanging information between a tag and a reader) were defined (but not ratified) by EPCglobal prior to 2003. These protocols, commonly known as Class 0 and Class 1, saw significant commercial implementation in 2002–2005.

In 2004 the Hardware Action Group created a new protocol, the Class 1 Generation 2 interface, which addressed a number of problems that had been experienced with Class 0 and Class 1 tags. The EPC Gen2 standard was approved in December 2004, and is likely to form the backbone of passive RFID tag standards moving forward. This was approved after a contention from Intermec that the standard may infringe a number of their RFID related patents. It was decided that the standard itself did not infringe their patents, but it may be necessary to pay royalties to Intermec if the tag were to be read in a particular manner. The EPC Gen2 standard was adopted with minor modifications as ISO 18000-6C in 2006.

As the cost of inlay, tag and label are getting affordable in cost. Nevertheless, further conversion (including additional label stock or encapsulation processing/insertion and freight costs to a given facility or DC) and of the inlays into usable RFID labels and the design of current Gen 2 protocol standard will increase the total end-cost, especially with the added security feature extensions for RFID Supply Chain item-level tagging.






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